Marketing the Word of God

Ancient Asset Investment website today: out of order.  It is saved, however, on

Ancient Asset Investment website today: down for maintenance.
It is saved, however, on Just click on this link.

In his blog, Paul Barford has recently called attention to the “dedication events” listed in the Ancient Asset Investment webpage on “Gifting”. I report here what I have found so far through the web on the basis of that list, some of Barford’s notes, and new evidence. All the donations linked with Ancient Asset Investment and Scott Carroll I have been able to track down have the sponsors in common: Ken and Barbara Larson.

1) 31 March 2014, Bethel University, St Paul Minnesota. Dedication of a Torah donated by Ken and Barbara Larson. The Torah, about 89 feet long, is said to come from Baghdad and dates predominantly to the early 17th century, with later insertions. A lecture entitled “From Baghdad to Bethel: A Holy Legacy” was given by Scott Carroll, Ph.D., Director, Sr. Research Scholar, Manuscript Research Group. See among others: and

2) 4 September 2014, Multnomah University, Portland Oregon. According to the University blog, “Ken and Barbara Larson, from Bonita Springs, Fla., are giving a rare and valuable Torah to Multnomah University.” They are said to be assisted by Ancient Asset Investment. A dedication ceremony has taken place at the beginning of this month:

According to the report, Scott Carroll gave a speech in this occasion: “The 89-foot scroll,” Carroll said, “was composed somewhere in Eastern Europe during the Reformation…If this Torah could talk to us, imagine what it could say and what it’s seen,” said Carroll. “It was preserved through the Enlightenment and the Holocaust. Through a wonderful turn of Providence, it’s in your community now.”

3) 18 September 2014: Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, IL. A Torah scroll originally from Germany and dating to the late 1400s or early 1500s is donated by Ken and Barbara Larson:

An interesting online article (Donald Libenson, in Capital Gazette, 21 October 2014) is shedding some light on the motivations behind Mr Larson’s donation. It explains that Mr Larson “credited a friend who’s an author and speaker with inspiring the gift. Larson described him as ‘an apologist,’ a defender of Christianity based on historical evidence and other philosophical arguments. ‘He told me he had purchased an ancient Torah and he found it to be helpful in his speaking and teaching. Most people have never seen a Torah. (For each Torah we’ve donated) I have asked the faculty if they’ve ever read from one or touched one, and the answer was no.’ ” Later in the story we have also a report on the evaluation of the scroll: “it has been valued at more than $400,000”.

4) 30 September 2014: The Master’s Seminary, Sun Valley CA. The Facebook page of the Seminary reports on October 1: “Yesterday The Master’s Seminary was given a Torah Scroll by Ken and Barbara Larson of Minneapolis. The scroll, originally crafted in the 18th century in Yemen is a unified work (not a combination of various scrolls merged into one).” A picture with Scott Carroll and the Larson is posted too. A recent donation of a 17th century Torah Scroll is recalled also on the Seminary’s Wikipedia page:’s_Seminary

5) 8 November 2014: Veritas Evangelical Seminar, Santa Ana CA. “In the presence of 1500 attendees at its annual National Apologetics Conference, Veritas Evangelical Seminary  received and dedicated a rare Hebrew Torah scroll. The donors, Ken and Barbara Larson, are passionate about Israel and the Bible, visiting the archaeologically rich nation four times.”The source is an article on Christian News Wire (1 December 2014). The donation is also announced on Twitter.

6) 5 December 2014: Dallas Theological Seminary, Dallas TX. The Facebook page of the Seminary reports on this date: “This morning Dr. Scott Carroll, Director and Senior Research Scholar for the Manuscript Research Group, donated a beautiful Torah scroll to DTS”.

The scroll is paid for by Barbara and Ken Larson, as we learn from the presentation ceremony posted online:

Here Carroll explains that the scroll most ancient portions date to the “late 1600 early 1700”. A section comes from Spain, but the scroll in the current shape seems to be from Morocco. Although the details remain vague – as always with our Indiana Scott – Carroll says that the Torah was brought to Israel by people constraint to leave their countries and once there it passed to local collectors with whom “they” – I guess he and Hillard ­– collaborate. In this way the manuscript went to the Larson, who are then introduced.

7) February 2015: Trinity Western University, Langley Canada. As reported in a local newspaper online: “A 450-year-old Torah scroll recently gifted to Trinity Western University (TWU) by donors Kenneth and Barbara Larson will give students access to an original Hebrew manuscript originating from Morocco. The 16th century scroll was presented by the Larson to mark their 50th wedding anniversary. The donation of the Torah was paired with funds for a Torah room in TWU’s Alloway Library.” The donation is also reported in the University webpage.

In conclusion, so far I have been able to count 7 Torah scrolls donated by Ken and Barbara Larson through the agency of Scott Carroll and Ancient Asset Investment to Christian education institutions in a short turn of time. Some of the stories attached to the scrolls look terribly similar, but it is impossible to verify details unless the institutions that have received these gifts will decide to check and enquire further. If I may, I warmly recommend them to do these checks because if Scott Carroll’s knowledge of Torah scrolls pairs his knowledge of papyri, I see problems coming.

It would be interesting, among other things, to know how much the Larson have paid for the scrolls, and how much they have declared their value for in tax returns.

There are of course all the other issues related to collection and acquisition history of these scrolls, export licenses, and so forth so on besides ethical questions regarding the Jewish history of these objects, in some cases even their connection to the Holocaust. It may be all perfectly legal. But I leave the reader to think about this story and to decide if all this sounds ethical.

I personally do not need the law or academic associations policies in order to decide for myself.

24 thoughts on “Marketing the Word of God

  1. I cannot comment on the issues and concerns being discussed here as they relate to the artifacts themselves, but I can speak about evangelical Christians, because my Dad was a minister and I grew up with these people in southern California. While my Dad promoted education and was a teacher, as was my brother (a theologian and professor who was at Claremont Graduate School with Craig Evans), many of the people I knew were uneducated and biblically illiterate, consistent with the stereotypes we are familiar with, including those depicted in films (e.g., Leap of Faith). My Dad placed great importance on education, but many did not, their value instead on experience (especially speaking in tongues) as evidence of spirituality. That for them was sufficient as tangible proof of their faith. But then they made a discovery: The original languages of the Bible, especially ancient Greek.

    In the 1970s many evangelical preachers began incorporating New Testament Greek words into their sermons. This became trendy, and congregations interpreted such as evidence of a pastor’s education and scriptural insight. Though most of these preachers never attended college, a large number never even finishing high school and ignorant about the parts of speech in English, they found that they could use koine Greek to impress, increase their standing as learned men and erudite biblical teachers. It was amusing to me that when I was in the Classics Department at Stanford, weekend visits to see a friend meant hearing a sermon on Sunday that included a lesson on the different kinds of love in ancient Greece, complete with the corresponding words depicting each.

    Despite the bias that existed in most fundamentalist churches against intellectuals, learning a few Greek works whetted their appetites for knowledge. They wanted more. It became important for them to demonstrate that they were also experts on the history, culture, and language of the Bible, and soon evangelical (and unaccredited) colleges began to spring up, offering to those who never finished high school M.A.s and Ph.D.s. in biblical studies, including Doctor of Ministry (D.Min.) degrees. Being able to include Greek in sermons and also call yourself “Dr.” so-and-so was the ultimate status, and thousands of these easy-to-get bogus degrees were conferred, of course, for a fee. Those who like my brother got advanced degrees from places such as Claremont and Talbot Theological Seminary left the organization, most joining other (non-fundamentalist) Protestant denominations.

    Fast forward present day, and many of these same people (some now more educated) have discovered that there are not only words from antiquity but also artifacts that can be leveraged from the pulpit and other venues to excite and bring new life to the faithful. The news that a fragment from the Gospel of Mark might have been found in a mummy mask caused shock and awe among these preachers and Christians, who exclaimed after hearing Craig Evans speak about it on YouTube that we could soon see at last “an original signature” from Mark and other New Testament writers. Joy unspeakable and full of glory!

    I am a Christian. Though not evangelical, I do keep up with people I grew up with on Facebook and elsewhere. Many are good people, of course, but most have hardly changed, and their naïveté is palpable — Josh McDowell revered by them as a great mind and a great teacher. The good vibrations and excitations that he and others are offering to them, leveraging biblical archaeology, is just another phase in their (and his) evolution in Christian maturity. The truth is that the church organization itself is losing members, many churches being forced to close their doors (one now under way), and they are evidently hoping that archaeology and “real” artifacts that they can actually see and touch will spur a revival, bring people to Christ. While the jumbotrons, Powerpoint slides, and enhanced entertainment are helping some churches to grow and keep people coming back on Sunday, especially prosperity-gospel preachers such as Joel Osteen, other churches are struggling to keep their doors open. These artifacts represent a beam of light from the heavens through a darkening church door. Well beyond the feel-good part of Christianity, they are different from anything these people have ever experienced: Evidence. This is something to shout about — a spark to renew their faith, enhance their message, bring about revival. I have no problem with the wish and the Christian message; I do have a problem with the method.

    Clearly, there are many factors other than promoting themselves as Christian apologists motivating Scott Carroll, Josh McDowell, and Craig Evans, also big dividends for people like Ken and Barbara Larson. I think the title of this latest post, “Marketing the World of God,” sums it up. These people are doing just that, whether or not exploiting a black market, they are using artifacts to baa baa to black sheep they hope to convert to white and thereby increase the flock. Meanwhile, the sheep that remain are in awe and expectations high that we are closer than ever to moving past simple faith to find real evidence of God. As Roberta Mazza said, yes, there are merchants in the temple and “we have reached a new level.” I expect that much destruction of artifacts will occur in the name of Christ. I do not believe that is what He had in mind. We are saved only by grace. That apparently is not enough for those like Scott Carroll. Once this most recent fragment from Mark is published, whatever the conclusions, it is certain that most Christians will take what McDowell and others have to say about it as the gospel truth.

  2. Paul Barford has tracked down Josh McDowell’s booklet on ‘his’ Lodz Torah Scroll

    Click to access Lodz+Torah+booklet.pdf

    And also quotes from Kenneth and Barbara Larson, which strongly indicate Josh McDowell as the inspiration and pattern for their donations.

    From Roberta’s accounts, the stories seem to intersect in Israel; certainly that is where Josh McDowell records the Lodz Scroll as being located before he bought it. Reports of AAI sourcing scrolls from Iraq, Yemen and Morocco; would almost certainly imply their having been brought to Israel in the 1950s, when these Jewish populations were evacuated there. It seems most likely that AAI have acquired a stock of Torah scrolls sold in the 50s and 60s by immigrant Jewish congregations.

    What also unites these Torah Scroll donations with their precedent in Josh McDowell’s ministry, is the crass self-regard with which the entire history of Jewish witness, scholarship, persecution and annihilation is appropriated into the back-story for the Christian Bible.

    Scott Carroll:

    “If this Torah could talk to us, imagine what it could say and what it’s seen, It was preserved through the Enlightenment and the Holocaust. Through a wonderful turn of Providence, it’s in your community now.”

    Josh McDowell:

    “The scroll survived several catastrophic events before making its way to McDowell, including the Black Death, The Reformation and the Holocaust.

    “God’s hand was guiding the scroll,” he said.”

  3. In the light of evangelical Christian doctrine and behaviour [ I shall call it ] quite often, some of which has been described at this blog, these acquisitions of ancient Torahs are insulting to Jewish communities.

  4. Craig Evans and Josh McDowell are using these artifacts to create a sensation for Christians. A number of my friends know Evans and were at seminary with him (including my brother); and many follow him, and especially McDowell, on Facebook and elsewhere. All the while, of course, these men are promoting themselves and their books. One of them, a pastor, just posted a long quote by McDowell proving that this mummy mask fragment of Mark’s Gospel predates anything in history, including copies of Homer.

    From Josh McDowell’s book, Evidence that Demands a Verdict: “Comparing the papyrus of Isaiah with the modern book of Isaiah it was found to be near to flawless in accuracy. No other book of antiquity can make that claim. The oldest copy of any book we have is The Writings of Homer (The Iliad and The Odyssey) and they are only 500 years old compared to 2000-year-old copies of the Old Testament. Those who say the Bible is inaccurate because it’s been translated so many times do so out of prejudice, not honest scholarship.”

    Evans, McDowell certainly, and their supporters say the masks aren’t museum-worthy, “are low-end,” as though justifying destruction of Egyptian artifacts to gain “a first-century witness to the text of the New Testament … [which is] unprecedented.” As Evans explained, “We dug under someone’s face, and there it was … this fragment of Mark dating to the 80s.” Enlisting great drama, both in words in body language in his talk to provoke excitement, Evans led people to believe he played a much greater role in the discovery and has far greater expertise than he in fact does as he “keeps inching [his] way toward ground zero, the autographs!” He did this not only in his talk last year but also in an interview with Life Science, which is posted on his Facebook page. Christians hearing about this are atwitter.

    Evans meanwhile has had to respond on Facebook, clarifying that while many in the media are now attributing the find to him, he is not the one who discovered the fragments in the mummy mask. Since this post (on 20 January 2015), he has been silent, at least publicly. But his followers are not — well over 100 of them sharing the Life Science article — though he has since shut down further discussion on the topic. He has moved on… promoting “A.D. The Bible Continues,” another TV mini-series produced by Mark Burnett and Roma Downey, which premieres on Sunday April 5th. Evans was a consultant on their initial 2013 mini-series, “The Bible,” and I gather was for this one as well.

    As Daniel Wallace (Dallas Theological Seminary) and others continue to mention the existence of “a fragment from Mark’s Gospel that is from the first century” during debates with people like Bart Ehrman about the reliability of the New Testament text, we can expect to hear about these apologists boasting about digging under someone’s face to get closer to ground zero, here a timeline someone created to show their progress thus far. As this document asks: “Are you braced for the impact of the Green Scholars Initiative’s work on newly discovered New Testament papyri?”

    An excerpt: November 27, 2011 – Scott Carroll, known to be acquiring artifacts and manuscripts for the rapidly growing Green Collection, states on Twitter: “Finished exhibit and lectures in West Africa with over 21,000 registered. Now in Istanbul looking at a collection of unpublished papyri.” Later the same day: “My eyes feasted on classical texts, royal decrees, and Biblical and Gnostic texts; nearly 1,000 papyri hidden in this private treasure-trove.”

    • Thanks Victoria, the timeline of Snapp is very useful but I totally disagree with his assumption that Gospels and literary texts are more important than all the rest (masks and cartonnage in this specific case). Usual Western-Classical-Christian mostly male arrogance believing all the other cultures are subaltern. Old stuff. They try to resist to a world that is already letting them all behind. Boooooring: Christian Western men I believe middle-aged or over.

      • Was only for information. Agree with your comments. Feel free to delete any of my posts, realize they do not add to the larger discussion.

  5. My position on all of this is not about Christianity, it is about method, and I find what Craig Evans, Josh McDowell, and others are doing disturbing.

  6. A long and informative article on the scroll donated to Trintiy School, Deerfield; from a Jewish perspective.

    Article quotes Carroll with more information on provenance, confirming that all the scroll come from a large private collection made in Jerusalem.

    “He was involved in tracing the scroll’s history, along with the donors, and while it was not possible to follow it through all of its 500 years, Carroll found that it came to the donors from a family in Jerusalem that has a large collection of Torahs. The donors, he says, “have a genuine appreciation of the Torah and want to share the experience. They feel and hope the presence of the Torah itself will motivate students and professors – will encourage and challenge them.””

    Several rabbis are quoted; and concur in the view that, so long as the scroll is not kosher – that is so long as it is now defective or incomplete such as to render it unacceptable in synagogue worship – there is no objection to its being held by a Christian Church that will treat it with respect.

    ““If it were a kosher Torah, I would not feel comfortable having it displayed there. If it could be used ritually in a synagogue it might make a difference, but I wouldn’t know that until I see it,” he says. “Knowing their background as an evangelical school with an interest in the Old Testament I know they will treat it with respect.”

    My own reservations are twofold:

    – firstly; that those of these scrolls that are Holocaust Witnesses – as some certainly are – should always be considered primarily as memorials to their murdered Jewish congregations. This is an ethical, not a legal question; it is not to do with who ‘owns’ them, but to whom they ‘belong’. I do not demur from Roberta’s principle “they are world cultural heritage whatever your religious affiliation might be”; in that sense they belong to us all. But I see a condition of that wider ‘heritage’, as being that they are always explicity acknowledged as forever ‘belonging’ to those who died. The terms ‘Holocaust’ and ‘miraculous survival’ can never be joined.

    – secondly; the reported didactic use to which these artefacts are put is at best grossly simplistic; and at worst, actively misleading. The scribal protocols that governed the transmission of the text of the Torah in Judaism are not found in parallel Christian textual transmissions; the canon of texts that Christians recognise as ‘scripture’ do not correspond with those of rabbinic Judaism. There seems to be an act of prestidigitation here; as ‘bible believers’, certain strands of evangelical Christianity require minute attention to the exact transmission of scripture, and an absolute and universal distinction between the categories of ‘scripture’ and ‘not scripture’; but the material evidence for both of these propositions in earliest Christianity is lacking. So they present a Jewish scroll abd Jewish practices instead; and hope the rest of us don’t notice the switch.

    Josh McDowell claims that both his Torah scroll, and his papyrus fragments are ‘walking witnesses’ to the reliability of the Christian scriptures, guaranteed through their divinely directed providential preservation. But the awkward truth for bible believers, is that they do not witness the exact same texts.

      • Many thanks Roberta,
        I look forward to reading the guest post.

        One point specific to Torah scrolls, is that they do not all – in fact – witness an identical consonantal text (Torah scrolls are written without indications of vowel sounds). Yemenite Torah scrolls differ from those of other scribal traditions at fourteen points. So the Yemenite scroll supplied by AAI to the Sun Valley Seminary will have varied from the other six.

        Of course the Penatateuch of the Reformation Bible does not derive from the Torah scroll tradition at all; but rather from the vocalised Hebrew Masoretic Text printed in Venice by Daniel Bomberg in 1525, and then used by Martin Luther. Ironically perhaps, the best manuscripts of the Masoretic Text tend to agree with Yemenite Torah scrolls against the rest in respect of their underlying consonantal Hebrew; although Bomberg’s printing of the MT Pentateuch was to be riddled with errors of its own – some of which found their way into Protestant Bibles.

        “In the Yemenite tradition of orthography, there are fourteen differences found in the Torah scroll as compared to other traditions of writing found amongst other communities. The Yemenite practice follows that tradition bequeathed by Aaron Ben-Asher in his “Aleppo Codex” of the Pentateuch.”

  7. Roberta, I, too, look forward to your next post. Please delete mine if not germaine to the discussion, though you may find the Timeline (the attachment in my last one) of interest.

  8. Larry Hurtado (New Testament scholar, University of Edinburgh) and his blog are the right source concerning both Dan Wallace and Craig Evans when it comes to a perspective on their debates and discussions on the Mark fragment — appealing to Christian apologetics clearly one agenda.

  9. Here is a link to the latest post on Paul Barford’s blog:

    On Paul’s blog is now a post from Todd Hillard (the founder and proprieter of Ancient Asset Investment) , in which he acknowledges poor choice of words on his website; and states that it has now been taken down for redesign. Todd has also added a briefer post to an earlier entry to Roberta’s blog here.

    Some additonal points from the post on Paul’s blog.

    – AAI are not currently dealing in papyri; and have never handled papyrus fragments extracted from mummy masks.

    – their main business is supplying Hebrew scrolls; specifically antique Torah Scrolls that have become ‘pasul’ (non-kosher) through deterioration, and so can no longer be used in synagogue worship.

    – all their Hebrew scrolls are obtained in Israel; where they were ‘probably’ bought by Israeli collecters from immigrant Jewish communities evacuated to Israel in the early 1950s. Most are entirely undocumented before that date.

    – their main clients are Christian seminaries.

    – “From a purely business standpoint, we saw AAI opportunity to sell a product at a reduced price and still put food on the table for multiple families. For a personal standpoint, however this business is driven by the vision to place irreplaceable artifacts in the hands of those who can care for them and share them with the world again.”

    Personally, I can well see that Todd has found a gap in the market; and exploited it. The commisioning and creation of handwritten Torah Scolls is a pious act and religious duty in Judaism; which supports a substantial industry of scroll scribes – mainly in Israel. But there is an inherent tension between this industury, and the titual rules that bind its work, and the development of a Jewish market for the resale of antique Torah scrolls together with their conservation. Just because the rules are so strictly maintained, old scrolls must be constantly re-inked and repaired; to a degreee that is incompatible with conservation standards. It must follow that a new scroll is always better than an old one; as indeed scroll scribes always advise. Furthermore, some rabbinic rulings are doubtful whether scrolls that are ‘pasul’ can properly be displayed in a synagogue setting; and if displayed, whether they may be read.

    Click to access abelson_pasul.pdf

    So it may well be that there are large numbers of antique scrolls in Israel that cannot now be used for synagogue worship, and may therfore be bought cheap; but whose antiquity is such as to generate additional interest in them from non-Jewish antiquaries, collectors and institutions. The very features which render the scrolls less valuable in Jewish use; may make them more valuable in non-Jewish hands – and by opening this alternative market, these features are preserved – where ritual law would have required them to be repaired. If Hillard can talk-up this potential non-Jewish market; then there is a substantial profit to be made, and a future assured for conserved historic antiquities.

    My specific reservations about how Torah scrolls are being misapplied (in my view) remain – specfically in the reports of persentations lead by Josh McDowell. Todd would do well to remove Jash’s ‘poster-boy’ status from the AAI website in my view.

  10. Ecco che cominciano a spuntare i verdoni… oppure possiamo supporre che il mediatore scientifico, preso da zelo mezzianico, si sia accontentato di un caffè all’in piedi in un bar di periferia?

    Caramente (e grazie ancora)

    Sever J. Voicu || via Benedetto XIV, 5 || IT – 00165 Roma ~~~~~~ Privé: TF +39)06.630.830 || Fax: +39)06.698.79.464 (per Voicu) Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana TF +39)06.698.79.454

  11. I recently attended a Torah presentation (a decommissioned text) at a Christian seminary, like the others described on this blog, complete with a lecture by Dr. Scott Carroll, and the presence of the donors, the Larsons. I found no grounds for suspicion. Rather, I heard a meticulous description of this pasul Torah scroll complete with detailed photographs of the usual unusuals—enlarged letters, inverted nuns, brick-written passages, corrected letters, and the like. Dr. Carroll’s descriptions were rooted in a firm knowledge of Jewish scribal practices.
    The seminary community was encouraged to invite local rabbis and the local sofer to come and see the scroll, and to meet with faculty and students regarding it. Carroll urged the school to make it available annually at Simhat Torah for that especially joyful celebration.
    The seminary library where it shall be kept is well equipped for housing the scroll, as it is the repository of a well-maintained rare book collection, which includes some rare printed Hebrew Bibles from the 16th and 17th centuries. One of the conditions of the gift was that the scroll be used in the curriculum. In that seminary, Hebrew is required, and the Hebrew professor is a (Christian) doctoral graduate of a rabbinical school. The students I met there seem eager for the opportunity.
    In short, I observed no disrespect to the Jewish tradition; and nothing unethical about the exchange. Rather there was ardent interest honoring the tradition that created and preserved the scroll. The seminary now enters into the task of preserving it, and using it honorably. I hope to take my own Hebrew students there soon.

    • Dear Byron,
      You are free to pay no attention whatsoever to ethical and provenance issues, although you may wish to know, for instance, that an Israeli man was recently arrested while trying to smuggle a Torah scroll from Yemen ( and there is a flourishing illegal market of Hebrew and other manuscripts. You are also free to believe the stories Scott Carroll is easily selling around because the audience has no clue of what he is talking about. But may I ask you a question? Have you ever read a line published by Carroll in a scholarly journal on Torah scrolls, papyri or anything similar? I bet you have not. Would you attend a University course taught by someone who has never published on a topic? I bet you would not, so why are you so happy to sit down, listen and believe the stories SC is telling you?

  12. It looks like some people are scamming the tax system. The value of a donation is it’s Fair Market Value, not an insurance replacement value, which the appraisals seem to. Fair market value is the price a willing buyer would pay for them. Value usually depends on the condition of the item. Apparently there are hundreds of used and in poor condition of Torah’s available for minimum prices.
    In fact, purchasing one of these Torahs establishes the FMV at that purchase price.
    As a tax accountant, I have dealt with these situations many times.

  13. Pingback: More Early Christian Greek and Coptic Papyri in the Green Collection? | Variant Readings

  14. Pingback: Steve Green announces the repatriation of 11,500 antiquities | Roberta Mazza

  15. Pingback: Evangelical trade in Biblical antiquities in the United States: It is still happening | Roberta Mazza

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